A SIM card will let you start using any carrier phone as your own by simply dropping it in, but it does not carry all of your data from device to device. If you plug your SIM card into a new device, the configuration details for your email accounts will not be there. Smartphones store that data in their hard drives, not on SIM cards.
SIM cards only contain the information about your account that lets a device join your carrier's network, receive your phone cards and individual plan features like text messaging or mobile broadband. They are technically capable of storing contact lists and text messages, but generally only feature phones actually do so.
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