What you see when you first connect your iPhone to the computer depends primarily on your iTunes and Windows AutoPlay settings. By default, iTunes is configured to auto-sync when you connect your phone, while AutoPlay is configured to launch when the phone is detected. This means that once the computer recognizes the iPhone, iTunes automatically launches to begin the sync process while AutoPlay launches with options on how view the contents of your phone. If you aren't a fan of iTunes or AutoPlay starting without your input, you can disable them.
Disabling Auto Sync
To completely disable autosync and autostart for iTunes, launch iTunes and press the "Alt" key to reveal the menu bar. Click "Edit," then "Preferences" and then "Devices." From this menu, click the check box marked "Prevent iPods, iPhones and iPads from syncing automatically." This will stop autosyncing, but to completely stop iTunes from autolaunching, you need to disable the iTunesHelper. Press "Windows-X" and choose Task Manager, followed by the "Start-Up" tab. Find iTunesHelper in the list, select it and click "Disable." Now, when you connect your iPhone, you should see a notification, but not iTunes.
You can also disable AutoPlay from launching when you plug in your iPhone. Connect your phone to the computer and press "Windows-X" to open the Power User menu, then select "Control Panel." Select "Hardware and Sound," followed by "AutoPlay" and look for your phone in the Devices section. Select "Take no action" from the drop-down menu to disable AutoPlay from launching when you connect your iPhone.