The Advantages & Disadvantages of Entering Kindergarten Early or Later

Parents are pondering when to send their children to kindergarten.
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The issue of starting kindergarten doesn't seem like something that could have life-altering consequences. Learning numbers, letters, colors and songs seems to be a pretty simple regimen for the average 5-year-old. But with the dawn of the No Child Left Behind Act, mandatory state testing and increased competition for slots at top colleges, parents are now wondering if five is the best age for their children to begin their first year of formal schooling.

1 Cutoff Dates

The decision about when to start a child in kindergarten revolves around cutoff dates. Only 12 states have mandatory kindergarten programs. The rest offer kindergarten as an optional introduction to formal schooling. All states have cutoff dates -- the date by which a student must be age 5 to enroll for a given school year. Concerns arise when the cutoff date is close to the end of the calendar year -- November or December -- because this enables 4-year-olds to enroll for the school year. A study in Canada revealed that enrolling at such a young age may be detrimental to students, leading to a higher retention rate in third grade and other academic problems.

2 Redshirting

To alleviate concerns about a child's immaturity or to maximize a child's chances of succeeding in kindergarten and beyond, some parents have turned to a practice called "redshirting," a term borrowed from college athletics that refers to freshmen sitting out a season to gain strength and maturity. In the case of kindergartners, the term refers to waiting until a child is 5 or even 6 to begin kindergarten. Some of the reasoning behind this practice comes from Malcolm Gladwell's book "Outliers," which studied Canadian hockey players and found that those who began youth hockey programs later because their birthdays were late in the year -- September to December -- were among the most successful players in adulthood.

3 Academic and Social/Emotional Issues

Gary Painter, an associate professor at the University of Southern California, conducted a study on redshirting among kindergarten students. He followed the students to their mid-20s and concluded that there was no discernible benefit to delaying entry into kindergarten. And, according to Samuel Meisels, Ed.D., of the Erikson Institute, redshirting may cause social and emotional problems later on in high school when these children are 18 to 24 months older than their peers.

4 Parents Know Best

In most states, parents can make the final decision about whether to start their child in kindergarten early or late. Parents should base their decision on what they know of the child's development. More important than the age at which to start your child in kindergarten is preparing him to read -- as well as pay attention, sit still and take turns -- prior to entrance into the school system, according to Richard Gentry, a reading expert, in an article in "Psychology Today."

Diane Kampf has more than 20 years of teaching experience ranging from middle school to college freshmen. She holds a Master of Arts degree in creative writing and English literature and a New York State Secondary Teacher Certificate. She has written educational materials for Learning Express, LLC, Kaplan and Pearson.