Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) is renowned for his psychoanalytic theory that spawned a legion of practitioners. One thinker who both underwent and practiced psychoanalysis is Erik Erikson (1902-1994). While Freud believed that development was driven by biological impulses such as the need for food and sex, Erikson emphasized the role of environmental factors and culture. Both theorists separate development into stages and use similar age divisions.
Freud emphasized the first six years of life as being most crucial for personality development. He lists three stages: the oral stage (first year of life), the anal stage (1-3 years) and the phallic stage (3-6 years). The stages revolve around pleasure centers -- the mouth, anal release and genitals. A conflict occurs during the phallic stage when the child desires to kill the same-sex parent to gain access to the opposite-sex parent. This conflict is called Oedipus or Electra complex. Latency Stage occurs from age 6 to puberty. During the latency stage, a child represses his/her sex drive and focuses on social skills. The final stage is the genital stage, when the person experiences sexual awareness and develops his/her identity.
Erikson’s Eight Stages of Personality Development
Erikson’s stages cover a person’s lifespan. These stages are based on the analysis of major psychosocial challenges. The first three stages cover infancy and early childhood. The conflicts covered during these three stages are establishing trust, independence and purpose. Stages 4 and 5 cover school age and adolescence -- periods during which an individual must gain competency and sense of self. The remaining stages cover early adulthood, middle adulthood and old age. During the final stages, a person must learn to love, care for others and develop a sense of integrity.
Both Freud and Erikson recognize the importance of the unconscious mind on personality development. Both theorists center development around a form of conflict. When the conflict is not resolved appropriately, emotional distress occurs, which can lead to mental illness. Childhood is crucial to personality formation, and both theories say that childhood trauma can distort the development of personality.
The nature of conflict differs between Freud and Erikson. Freud's conflict centers around sex. Erikson's theory takes a the psychosocial approach, which means that people are shaped by society and desire to be part of a group. In Erikson's theory, conflict is resolved when a person learns to love and care for others. In Freud's theory, conflict is resolved when a person receives adequate gratification during the early stages of development.
- Inkling Interactive Books: Life-Span Development
- The Story of Psychology; Hunt, Morton; 2007
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