Because the English language is a mixture of several languages, it can sometimes be hard to learn because of all its influences. English, like other languages, is made up of several rules including phonetic rules. The spelling of each word does not necessarily show how it's phonetically pronounced. Symbols are used to depict how each word sounds. The majority of vowels are defined as long or short vowels and each has its own symbol.

Include a macron mark above a long vowel. This mark is depicted with a dash line directly above the long vowel.

Write a breve mark above a short vowel. This mark is depicted with a u-shape above a short vowel.

Integrate the long vowels with their macron marks in a word. For example: made has a long "a," seen has a long "e," life has a long "i," ghost has a long "o" and cute has a long "u."

Write out short vowels with their breve marks in a word. For example: pact has a short "a," edge has a short "e," fit has a short "i," mop has a short "o" and cut has a short "u."