Often the introduction and conclusion of a research paper, article or essay can be the hardest part to write. Gathering facts and evidence for the body is easier to translate into words, where as the opening and closing of a document must sandwich the facts and evidence logically and smoothly. The introduction and conclusion are the reader's first and last impression of your topic.

Step 1

Write the body of your paper first. Often what you set out to address doesn't end up being the finished product. After you've written your paper, jot a few notes that answer these questions: What are you trying to accomplish (your thesis)? What are your arguments? What evidence backs this up?

Step 2

Grab the audience's attention in the introduction. Quotes, startling statistics, provocative questions for the reader, or an anecdote are ways to get the reader's interest.

Step 3

Add a few lines about what the paper, article or essay will cover. The last sentence of the introduction should be your thesis statement, main point, or nut graf that clearly defines what your purpose.

Step 4

Bring closure to the paper. Restate your thesis and include supporting evidence. Tell the reader what you know, why you know it, then what you know again. For an article or essay, refer back to the anecdote, statistic or question to wrap up the curiosity you created in the beginning.