Citations provide your reader with the ability to track down the sources used in your research, even if that source is previous research done by you. Representing work that you have previously done as new work is self-plagiarism. Work you have had published as a book or article is cited using standard APA format for those types of sources. When citing your previous writing that has not been formally published, include it in your reference list as an unpublished manuscript.

Citing Yourself as a Published Author

If you reference published work you've done in the past, include that book on your reference list. This reference will include your name, the publication year, book title, and publisher information, as follows: Author Lastname, First Initial(s). (Year). Title of book: Subtitles if included. Publisher Location: Publisher.

For example: Smith, S. (2005). The fourth wave: Introductions to the new. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Manuscript Citations on Your Reference List

If you are citing your work that has not been formally published on your reference list, replace the information for the publisher with a note stating that your writing is unpublished: Your Lastname, Your First Initial(s). (Year). Title of work: Subtitle if applicable. Unpublished manuscript.

For example: Smith, S. (2007). Theories of a Person. Unpublished manuscript.

In-Text Citations

If you paraphrase or directly quote your previous work in the body of a paper, include an in-text citation noting where the information comes from. This is a parenthetical including your last name, the year of writing, and the page number, if applicable.

Example: The person is not merely a person, but a "collection of ideas and beliefs within a social system" (Smith, 2007, p. 8).