When most people refer to Nebuchadnezzar, they are referring to the better known of two Babylonian kings, Nebuchadnezzar II. Nebuchadnezzar II ruled Babylon for 43 years between 604 B.C. and his death circa 561 B.C. He is known to history for his military campaigns against Egypt, his conquest of Judah and destruction of Jerusalem and his elaborate public works, including palaces, ziggurats and the fabled Hanging Gardens of Babylon.

Nebuchadnezzar I

Roughly 500 years before Nebuchadnezzar II reigned in Babylon, the people of Babylon threw off foreign rule and crowned the lesser-known Nebuchadnezzar I. Nebuchadnezzar I was the most significant ruler of the Second Isin dynasty, which lasted from 1157 to 1026 B.C. He is most well known for decisive military victories over neighboring Assyria and Elam. Nebuchadnezzar I ruled Babylon from 1125 B.C. until his death, which historians date between 1104 and 1100 B.C.