Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, also known as "El Cid," was a medieval Spanish military leader who gained fame by taking the city of Valencia from the Spanish Muslims and defeating a large Almoravid invasion force. Although the real El Cid was a mercenary who fought for both Christian and Muslim leaders at different points in his career, his defeat of a powerful Muslim army made him a symbol of the Christian reconquest of the Iberian peninsula.
In 711 A.D., a Muslim army from North Africa invaded and conquered most of the Iberian peninsula, leaving only a few small Christian kingdoms in the north. For the next several centuries, both religions coexisted in Spain. Eleventh-century Spain was a patchwork of independent or semi-independent city states and feudal lordships, some Christian and some Muslim. It was not at all uncommon for Christian soldiers to fight in the armies of Muslim rulers. The Muslim title "sayyid" means "master" or "lord," and was often applied to mercenary bosses who led their own small armies of soldiers for hire. This title was rendered by the Spanish as "cid" or "boss." The most famous and successful of these mercenary commanders was Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, who was nicknamed "El Cid" or "the Boss."
Career of El Cid
El Cid began his career as a soldier for Sancho II, one of two claimants for the throne of the Christian kingdom of Leon-Castile. When Sancho II was killed and replaced by his brother Alfonso VI, El Cid served the new king for several years but was then sent into exile. He then led an army of 2,000 Christian knights for the Muslim ruler of Zaragoza, al-Mu'tamin. Alfonso later decided to employ him again and send him against the Muslim rulers of southern Spain. El Cid agreed, on the condition that he could keep any lands he conquered.
Victories of El Cid
El Cid took the city of Valencia in 1094, then defeated a numerically superior force of Almoravids who had come over from North Africa to reverse Christian gains. Unlike the Spanish Muslims, the Almoravids were fanatically religious and had the reputation of being invincible in battle. El Cid's victory over the Almoravid army made him a hero to the Spanish Christians. The Spanish of that era referred to him as the "campeador" or "battle planner" referring to his habit of studying ancient Roman military treatises for tips on strategy.
Poema de Mio Cid
El Cid's military achievements, although impressive, had little to do with the much later Christian reconquest of Spain. The Spanish Christians did not succeed in driving the Muslims out of Spain for another 400 years. However, El Cid was the subject of an epic poem called "Poema de Mio Cid." This idealized depiction of his career, and the historical fact of his victory over powerful Muslim forces, made him a symbol of unity and heroism for Spanish Christians. The Christian soldiers who waged the "reconquista" or wars of reconquest against the Spanish Muslims, saw El Cid as a symbol of what they were fighting for.
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