Augustine was the first to speak of sacraments being signs of grace. The phrase most used in Catholic literature is, "Sacraments are outward signs of inward grace, instituted by Christ for our sanctification." This belief in outward signs acknowledges that human beings are embodied creatures. They live in a world of touch, sound and taste. Consequently, they best express their faith in terms of physical signs and actions.
History of the Phrase
The phrase "outward signs of inward grace" dates back to Peter Lombard, a 12th-century Catholic theologian, known as the Master of the Sentences. He said that the outward sign was both a symbol of the inner grace and also its cause. His phrase and the theology behind it were adopted by Thomas Aquinas and the medieval scholastics, the authors of much of the classic theology of the church. The Council of Trent later declared that these signs have the power to sanctify, or to convey grace to human souls.
The Roman Catholic Church recognizes seven sacraments: Baptism, Confirmation (or Chrismation), the Eucharist, Penance, the Anointing of the Sick, Holy Orders and Matrimony. The sacraments mark important stages in people's lives. They are outward signs of God's grace in the lives of those who partake of these sacraments. The outward sign of the sacrament of baptism, for example, involves pouring water over the candidate's head. The inward grace of baptism is regeneration and renewal. Through baptism, sins are forgiven and the candidate becomes an adopted child of God.
Sacramentals, according to the "Catechism of the Catholic Church," are "sacred signs which bear a resemblance to the sacraments." They include blessings, incense, pilgrimages, holy images and statues, rosaries, the sign of the cross and other actions and objects. Their purpose of sacramentals is to focus the devotion of the faithful. They are outward signs of the prayers of the people. As such, they are the visible evidence of the people entrusting their lives to God, and God hearing and answering prayer.
Other Outward Signs
In a looser sense of the term, other everyday actions can be outward signs. Michael Leach, author of "Why Stay Catholic?," suggests in his 2012 article in the "National Catholic Reporter" that hugs might be an outward sign of an inward grace. He says that they convey "unity and loving regard." He also speaks of their ability to heal the spirit.
- The Catholic Encyclopedia: Grace
- The Vatican: Catechism of the Catholic Church, The Seven Sacraments of the Church
- Vatican Radio: Pope Benedict Defines a Sacrament as an Outward Sign and Cause of Grace, Quoting the Writings of Twelfth Century Scholar, Peter Lombard
- The Catholic Encyclopedia: Sacraments
- The Catholic Encyclopedia: Sacramentals
- The Vatican: Catechism of the Catholic Church, Sacramentals
- The Vatican: Catechism of the Catholic Church, Baptism
- National Catholic Reporter: Hugs are an Outward Sign of Inward Grace
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