Different Things That Can Be Used to Represent the Elements on a Wiccan Altar

Wiccan altars should contain items that represent the elements, but worshipers have some flexibility in deciding what those items are.
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Wiccans believe that the world constitutes five basic elements: spirit, plus the traditional physical elements of earth, fire, air and water.The pentagram, a five-pointed star inside a circle, represents the unity of these five elements, and it is one of the important symbols of Wicca. The pentagram, or in some cases the Wiccan herself, represents the element of spirit, which suffuses everything; the other four require more tangible symbols. A Wiccan has some choices in how to represent each of the four physical elements on an altar.

1 Earth

Wiccans may use salt to represent earth on the altar, but it need not be sea salt.
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One of the most common ways to represent earth is with that everyday essential, salt. Salt has, since ancient times, carried deep cultural and symbolic meaning, having even been used as currency. Wiccan coven founder Azaz Cythrawl recommends gathering your own salt, which is easiest for Wiccans who live near the ocean. In addition to representing earth, salt is key to Wiccan purification rituals. Another way to represent earth on an altar is to use soil; this may be particularly appropriate to outdoor worship or rituals focused on fertility.

2 Fire

Candles, representing the element of fire, are one of the most common items on Wiccan altars.
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Candles, ubiquitous on altars of many faiths, are the most direct and popular way to represent fire on a Wiccan altar. If your ritual takes place outdoors, a larger blaze, such as a campfire or even a bonfire, may be appropriate, especially if the altar is set up to honor fire-based Sabbats like Imbolc or Beltane. When candles are used, their color is significant, suggesting the type of ritual or occasion involved.

3 Air

Incense is a popular way to represent air on the altar, and the different scents can carry different symbolic meanings.
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Air takes many forms, so it is not surprising that Wiccans use a variety of symbols to represent this elusive but ever-present element. For instance, the altar may feature a bell, a fan or a feather, but the most common item is incense. The Wiccan may burn incense in a thurible, an incense burner of various shapes and sizes, or in a censer, which is an incense burner mounted on a chain so it can be swung, directing the scented smoke around the ritual space. The specific scents and herbs used in the incense carry a variety of symbolic meanings, but Wiccans are free to determine for themselves which of these associations are significant to them.

4 Water

A chalice holds water or ritual wine on the Wiccan altar.
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Water is the most directly literal of the elements on a Wiccan altar, because it does not require an item to symbolize it. It is also common to use wine on a Wiccan altar, depending on the specific symbolism required by the ritual. The vessels used include the stereotypical cauldron, a simple bowl, or a chalice, which is a stemmed cup. The material used in these vessels varies widely, depending on the visual appearance and symbolism the Wiccan prefers.

5 Combinations

The pentagram represents the combination of all elements.
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Because Wiccans believe that everything is connected, they use symbols that combine more than one element, like the pentagram. One example of a combined elemental symbol is salt water, commonly used in purification rituals. Wine combines features of earth as well as water, and a wooden wand may represent air, fire, or both. Wiccan Dale Hyde suggests that colored candles can actually represent all four elements, with red for fire, green or brown for earth, blue for water and yellow for air.

Jennifer Spirko has been writing professionally for more than 20 years, starting at "The Knoxville Journal." She has written for "MetroPulse," "Maryville-Alcoa Daily Times" and "Some" monthly. She has taught writing at North Carolina State University and the University of Tennessee. Spirko holds a Master of Arts from the Shakespeare Institute, Stratford-on-Avon, England.