Buddhists engage in rituals as part of their spiritual practice. These sacraments are meant to cleanse the spiritual being or soul. Cleansing rituals may be performed either alone or with others in a setting of collective worship. They take place during celebrations, as well as moments of profound spiritual reverence. Whether minimal or complex, rituals are performed to commune with Buddhist deities, fend off evil and bring good fortune. Cleansing rituals take various forms, including meditation or fruit offerings, and incorporate specific objects, such as sacred bowls and bells.
The enactment of a Buddhist ritual often requires an offering. As with other ritual objects, an offering bowl has a symbolic meaning. Its purpose is to hold gifts to Buddhist deities. In Tibetan Buddhism, seven offering bowls occupy the altar and contain seven offerings, including drinking and cleansing water, flowers, incense, light, perfume and food items.
A butter lamp, not unlike a candle holder, helps to create focus during meditation. It consists of a base and a basin on top for burning vegetable oil, or, traditionally, yak butter. Often a butter lamp is inscribed with decorative designs. Buddhists believe that in addition to providing light, this lamp also enlightens and purifies the mind.
A phurpa is a three-sided dagger, similar to a tent stake. Although referred to as a magic dagger, the phurpa’s blade is not sharp. This object’s purpose is to intimidate evil spirits and overcome challenges. During a ritual, Buddhists chant mantras while meditating on frightening away evil forces with the phurpa.
A mandala is a symbolic geometric object representing the universe. Its basic shape is a square with four gates encompassing a circle with a center point. It functions as a sacred space open to Buddhist deities and spiritual forces. The mandala is used as a focal point during meditation.
The use of a prayer wheel takes the place of chanting mantras. Buddhists spin a wheel on which prayers and mantras are inscribed; in doing so, these sacred words are sent into the universe. Prayer wheels are made by winding inscribed paper around itself, and then placing the roll inside a copper or wood container. The container is then attached to a spindle, which is spun around.
Vajra or Dorje
A vajra or dorje is a ceremonial object symbolizing the indestructible and irresistible forces of the soul and spiritual power. It is a small wand resembling a scepter, with a ball or round finial on both ends. It is commonly made of copper, but can also be silver. Always held in the right hand, it is used in cleansing or purification rituals intended to bring forth enlightenment. Buddhists use the vajra or dorje in conjunction with the drilbu.
The drilbu is a ceremonial object symbolizing compassion and wisdom. It looks and sounds like a bell, except that the handle has a round knob corresponding to the dorje's finial. The drilbu is made from the same metal as the dorje used with it. Buddhists believe that the sound of the drilbu purifies the spirit, invites good energy and banishes evil.
Kapala or Skull Cup
The kapala, also called a skull cup, is created simply by using the upper portion of a human skull. It can be ornamented with engraved designs or other embellishments. It looks like an upturned bowl, except that it is made from an actual skull. The kapala is most often used to bestow offerings to Buddhist deities.
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