Pearl Harbor is well known because of the surprise Japanese attack during World War II that brought the United States into the war. But Pearl Harbor, on the island of Oahu, had a rich history long before that infamous day in December. Teach kids facts about Pearl Harbor’s history, legends and current use as well as the attack.
Pearl Harbor was called both Wai Momi and Pu’uloa by early Hawaiians. Wai Momi means “pearl water,” and Pu’uloa means “long hill.” Legends said that Pearl Harbor was where the shark goddess, Ka’ahupahau, lived.
U.S. in Pearl Harbor
The United States had noticed that Hawaii -- and Pearl Harbor, in particular -- was a good place to have a naval base in the Pacific Ocean. The kingdom of Hawaii and the United States ratified a Reciprocity Treaty in 1887 and allowed the United States Navy to use the harbor as a base.
The Navy first docked at a harbor at Honolulu and referred to it as Naval Station, Honolulu, then Naval Station, Hawaii. It wasn’t until 1908 that the Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard was officially founded. Over the next 11 years, the United States Navy continued to work on expanding and improving the harbor.
December 7th, 1941
President Franklin Delano Roosevelt called this day “a date which will live in infamy” because of the attack. On this date, Japanese forces attacked the Pearl Harbor naval base with no warning. The United States had been reluctant to join the Allies in World War II, but this attack showed the U.S. that isolation was not an option.
Aftermath of the Attack
The attack on Pearl Harbor killed 2,402 U.S. Navy personnel and wounded 1,282. Fifteen ships and 188 aircraft were also destroyed, dealing a major blow to U.S. Naval Forces at Pearl Harbor. Many soldiers were trapped in ships and drowned in the harbor before they could be rescued while others were killed instantly in the attack. The United States declared war on Japan because of the attack on December 7, 1941. As a response, Germany and Italy declared war on the United States since they were allies with Japan.
Pearl Harbor Today
The Pearl Harbor Navy base is still an active navy base today. The base is home to much of the U.S. Navy’s Pacific fleet. Although there is a memorial at the harbor, visitors are only allowed in certain areas as the rest are only available to military access.
Visiting Pearl Harbor
The USS Arizona Memorial was established in 1958 and visitors can watch documentaries, purchase resources and learn about the day of the attack. Kids can get on the ship and find interpretive exhibits to learn more about Pearl Harbor.
- “Day of Infamy, 60th Anniversary: The Classic Account of the Bombing of Pearl Harbor”; Walter Lord; 2001
- “Pearl Harbor Amazing Facts”; Timothy B. Benford; 2001
- “Pearl Harbor and the Coming of the Pacific War: A Brief History with Documents and Essays (Bedford Series in History & Culture)”; Akira Iriye; 1999
- “From Fishponds to Warships: Pearl Harbor--A Complete Illustrated History”; Allan Seiden; 2001
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