Peace agreements are a key component to maintaining diplomacy between nations. During times of war or conflict, leaders and politicians must work together to resolve their differences. Peace agreements and treaties allow nations to establish firm rules for interacting with one another. Often necessary to resolve conflicts in wartime, peace agreements are just as necessary in peacetime as a deterrent to conflict. While peace agreements lay out clear rules for interaction between opposing parties, the execution of such agreements requires diligence, hard work and flexibility.
Secure an agreement on the underlying issues to be addressed. For example: "The parties will not cross each other’s border without consent, or the rights of citizens of different ethnic groups will be acknowledged." This is necessary before proceeding to final agreements. Writing a peace agreement is a fluid process and resembles a negotiation up until the final document is written.
Outline the responsibilities of each party under the agreement. Each party must agree to do certain things to make the agreement work. These responsibilities need not be reciprocal. They must simply meet the needs of the opposing party and be acceptable to the party executing them. State these responsibilities in broad terms that will be acceptable not only to the main parties, but any constituents each party is responsible to.
Draft the agreement. Each party must make suggestions to the mediator, who does the actual drafting. The mediator will then assemble a draft of the agreement best suited to both parties. Each party must review this draft until both parties can agree on its content. Another way to do a draft agreement is for each party to draft its own list of conditions. The separate drafts are then presented to the mediator, who will work with each party to reach an agreement.
Create a legally binding document based on the underlying issues agreed to by both parties. Legal representatives and politicians for both parties will review the agreed upon items and work toward a final document. Peace agreements commonly include measures on such issues as: security, human rights, sociopolitical, leadership, political recognition and time frame for implementing the agreement.
Plan how the agreement will be executed. Each party must agree to responsibilities that translate into practical real-world actions. The supporting population and civil system must be brought into the process in order to make the larger society responsible for the success of the agreement. Consequences for breaking the agreement should also be included.
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