What does a census sample mean in math? I'm Bon Crowder with Math4.com, and we're talking about what a census sample means in math. Well census means the data that you get from an entire population, that's what happens when they do the census every ten years and a sample means a part of a population and the data you get from there. So a census and a sample are kind of opposites but when you put the words together, a census sample means you take the entire census data and then you pluck out a chunk of them to be the sample and so a census sample is a part of the data from the full census. I'm Bon Crowder with Math4.com and that's what a census sample is.