The Nile valley, in northern Egypt where the Nile river meets the Mediterranean Sea, is fertile and conducive to agriculture. It helped establish ancient Egypt's reputation as a prosperous and cultured community. The Nile valley was significant because it provided a stable source of food and enabled the Egyptians to survive on their valuable resources.
Source of Food
The Nile valley was a result of seasonal rains that flooded the Nile river and left mineral deposits as the waters receded, creating fertile ground for producing large, healthy crops. Major crops included wheat, barley, flax, papyrus, fruit and vegetables. The river and surrounding marsh areas were also home to fish and wild birds, providing a source of protein for the Egyptians. Seeds were planted following the natural deposit of nutrient-rich soils and required little water or irrigation until harvest in the spring.
Protection Against Invaders
The marshy delta and multiple river mouths made it difficult for invaders to enter the Nile valley from the north. It created a barrier burdensome to breach, especially during rainy, flood seasons when water routes were tough to navigate. Nile valley inhabitants could use the Nile river to travel and trade inland with other Egyptians, but the uninhabitable Sahara desert made it nearly impossible for invaders to reach the Nile valley by land.
The Nile-valley focus made it easy to create a centralized government, ruled by a monarch, where laborers worked together to ensure the success of agricultural developments and helped with construction projects. Egyptian pharaohs owned the land, taxed produce and established compulsory labor to ensure the fertile lands were efficiently cultivated every year. In return, workers benefited from the pharaoh's commitment to store and preserve crops during floods and famines. Egyptians pledged allegiance to their leaders so they could reap the rewards of a safe, insulated and well-protected society.
Because Egyptians in the Nile valley didn't have to focus on ways to survive in the barren desert, they had time to invest in cultural ventures, such as philosophy, art, architecture, fashion, government, religion and education. For example, the Egyptians created hieroglyphics, a complex system of writing using pictures, built pyramids and developed the scientific process of mummification. They also built water vessels for commuting and trading up and down the Nile river. The steady and reliable Nile-valley food source made it possible for Egyptians to modernize and intellectualize their society.
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