Doctors who have completed medical school may continue their education and training in anesthesiology, the use of medical sedation to ensure the well-being and comfort of patients. Anesthesiologists are responsible for evaluating patients prior to anesthesia, administering anesthesia and monitoring postoperative effects of anesthesia. While several schools offer anesthesiology programs, the University of San Francisco, Johns Hopkins University, the University of Washington and Stanford University are ranked among the top anesthesiology schools in the nation by the Anesthesiology Schools, a resource website for anesthesiology education, and the National Institutes of Health.

University of San Francisco

A team of doctors is operating on a patient.

The University of San Francisco is the No. 1 college for anesthesiology, according to rankings conducted by Anesthesiology Schools. In 2014, it was ranked No. 3 in research funded by the National Institutes of Health. The university’s anesthesiology department provides research opportunities in obstetric anesthesia and perioperative care and boasts a three-year residency program in which residents get hands-on experience at major medical centers such as San Francisco General Hospital, Moffitt-Long Hospital, the San Francisco Veterans’ Hospital, Mount Zion Hospital and the UCSF Orthopedic Institute.

Johns Hopkins University

A doctor is with a young girl in a pediatric hospital.

Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore is ranked No. 4 by Anesthesiology Schools and No. 2 in research funded by the National Institutes of Health. The university offers a three-year, advanced-residency training program as well as a categorical residency that lasts for four years. In the residency programs, students gain experience in surgical intensive care, general operating room procedures, obstetrics, pediatrics, preoperative evaluation and acute and chronic pain medicine. Johns Hopkins also offers fellowships in adult cardiothoracic anesthesiology, adult critical care, neurosciences critical care, obstetric anesthesia, pain medicine, pediatric anesthesia, pediatric critical care and regional anesthesia. These fellowships last from six months to three years, depending on the program.

University of Washington

An anesthesia doctor is working with a patient.

The University of Washington, located in Seattle, Wash., is ranked No. 2 by Anesthesiology Schools and No. 5 in research funded by the National Institutes of Health. It provides four different types of residency training, including a four-year categorical residency training and a three-year, advanced-residency training, which requires a medical internship prior to acceptance to the program. The third residency program combines four years of anesthesiology training with one year of critical care training, allowing residents to become board certified in anesthesiology and critical care. A small number of residents are eligible for the Bonica Scholars Program, a six-year residency program, which provides students with an annual scholarship of $30,000 annually disbursed during three of the four years of residency, in exchange for two additional years devoted to anesthesiology research.

Stanford University

A doctor is administering an IV.

Stanford University, in Palo Alto, Calif., is ranked No. 16 by Anesthesiology Schools and No. 4 in research funded by the National Institutes of Health. During the three-year residency program, students are trained in Stanford’s Anesthesia Preoperative Anesthesia Clinic and Anesthesia Simulator Center, while also taking shifts at Stanford University-Packard Children’s Hospital, Santa Clara Valley Medical Center and the Veterans Administration Palo Alto Health Care System. In the first year of residency, residents are given two months of specialty training in fields such as pediatric anesthesia, obstetric anesthesia, cardiovascular anesthesia, critical care medicine, advanced airway management, anesthesia for thoracic surgery, neuroanesthesia and regional anesthesia. Stanford’s Department of Anesthesia offers one-to-two-year fellowships in pain medicine, adult cardiothoracic, pediatric and critical care as well as obstetrics.