Egypt and Mesopotamia were two of the world's earliest city-based civilizations, forming the foundation for Middle Eastern and Western history. Though they shared many broad similarities, such as agricultural society, polytheistic religions and written traditions, they also had many differences. These contrasts included geographic orientation, cultural emphases, political organization and other aspects.
Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations differed in terms of their physical geography, and this had noticeable impacts on their societies. Both societies developed around rivers; the name "Mesopotamia" comes from the Greek meaning "land between the rivers," in reference to the Tigris and Euphrates. However, Mesopotamian civilization spread gradually across much of what is today Iraq, while ancient Egypt remained tightly arranged around the banks of the Nile River, surrounded by harsh desert. This situation likely contributed to Egypt's high regard for the river, which brought a steady supply of water for agriculture, in contrast to Mesopotamia's uneasy relationship with rivers due to frequent destructive flooding.
An obvious difference between Egypt and Mesopotamia was in their political structures. Mesopotamia was always a loose collection of separate states, often unified only in the sense that they shared the same religion and writing system. Ancient Egypt, on the other hand, was a single tightly organized state for much of its history. This distinction was also present in religious life. While Mesopotamian kings did claim to be direct messengers of the gods, Egypt's pharaohs claimed extra power and authority as actual embodiments of the gods themselves.
When comparing what we know about these two early civilizations, it stands out that Egypt is especially known for its impressive architecture and monuments such as the pyramids. This is partly because the Egyptians' location gave them better access to stone for building. Mesopotamian architects developed the world's first known arches, columns and roofed buildings, but they were limited to using mud bricks as construction materials. However, Egypt also gained an architectural advantage from its centralized and authoritarian form of government, which allowed it to mobilize huge numbers of workers and slaves for construction projects.
Though both Mesopotamia and Egypt used writing as a way to keep records, their methods and objectives were different. Egypt could have adopted the cuneiform alphabet of Mesopotamia, but instead it invented its own system of hieroglyphics, which were based on pictures but could also be used to spell out words by sound. Although Mesopotamia was less accomplished than Egypt in architecture, its literary accomplishments far outshone those of its neighbor. Mesopotamia had a tradition of epic literature that produced important works such as the "Epic of Gilgamesh," the world's earliest known written story.
Role of Women
The comparative status of women in these ancient societies changed over time. Some sources say Mesopotamia stood out for women's nearly equal status, including the rights to own land, request a divorce and do business in their own names. However, in later Mesopotamian history, many women's trades were taken over by men, and by some accounts, Egyptian society respected women more highly for most of its history. In Egypt, upper-class women were greatly revered, and goddesses made up much of the religious pantheon.