Passover commemorates the liberation from Egyptian slavery.
Passover commemorates the liberation from Egyptian slavery.

Passover is central to Jewish tradition. Based on the story of the Israelites' liberation from Egyptian slavery, Jews celebrate Passover to commemorate freedom, spiritual redemption, God's power and community.

The Biblical Story

The crossing of the sea is the climax of the Passover story.
The crossing of the sea is the climax of the Passover story.

The Passover story comes from the first 15 chapters of the Bible's book of Exodus. God elects Moses to lead the Israelite slaves out of Egypt and sends 10 plagues on Egypt to show his might. As the Israelites flee the Egyptian pursuers, God miraculously splits the sea through which the Israelites flee.

Unleavened Bread

Matzo is eaten in place of bread.
Matzo is eaten in place of bread.

Matzo, or unleavened bread, replaces bread on Passover. Before the escape, God orders the Israelites to observe the Passover holiday with unleavened bread for all time (Exodus 12:15). The reason is linked to the hasty departure from Egypt, when the Israelites did not have time for their bread to rise (Exodus 12:34).

The Passing Over

God spared the Israelites by passing over their houses.
God spared the Israelites by passing over their houses.

The name "Passover" (Hebrew: "Pesach") comes from God's final plague on Egypt: the slaying of the firstborn son. In Exodus 12:13, God commands the Israelites to smear blood on their door posts, for "when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and no plague shall destroy you when I strike the land of Egypt."

Social Justice

Justice is a Passover theme.
Justice is a Passover theme.

Liberation from Egyptian enslavement is a central theme for Passover and for Jewish life. Freedom from oppression, whether for Jews or for others, makes Passover representative of the social justice values in Jewish tradition.

God

Passover honors God's liberating powers.
Passover honors God's liberating powers.

God's power to defeat the enemy, liberate a people and form a community are central to the Passover story. Passover is a time to remember God's actions in the world, and it commemorates God's power in creating a spiritual nation.

Redemption

Passover orders everyone to remember redemption from Egyptian slavery.
Passover orders everyone to remember redemption from Egyptian slavery.

The Israelites experienced physical liberation as well as spiritual redemption. Once out of slavery, they were free to worship God and receive the law. Personally experiencing physical and spiritual redemption is central to Passover nowadays. According to "My Jewish Learning," "in every generation every individual is obliged to view him or herself as though he or she had actually gone forth from Egypt."