As their names suggest, the role of adjectives and adverbs is to add information to a sentence. They add detail and color to objects and actions that would otherwise appear boring and vague, but they can sometimes be difficult to identify and easy to confuse. In order to identify adjectives or adverbs in a sentence, you must first have a general understanding of how they work and the parts of speech that each modifies.
How Adjectives Work
According to Purdue University’s Online Writing Lab, an adjective’s purpose is to describe a noun by answering the questions “which one?” “what kind?” or “how many?” In the sentence, “The biggest office is mine,” the word “office” is a noun, and the word “biggest” distinguishes which office is being described. In the sentence, “The old car sputtered by,” the adjective “old” describes what kind of car is passing. The sentence “Several children were injured” uses the adjective “several” to clarify how many children were involved.
How to Locate Adjectives
Because an adjective’s job is to modify a noun, it helps to find the nouns in a sentence. Look for words that name people, places, things or ideas, such as “mayor,” “city,” “pencil” or “love.” Mark these words in the sentence, then look at each one individually to see if any of the words nearby add information to the noun by answering “what kind?” “which one?” or “how many?” Generally, an adjective will come before the noun it modifies, as “old” comes before “man” in “The old man walked home.” When a noun is followed by a linking verb – forms of “be,” “feel,” “taste,” “smell,” “sound,” “look,” “appear” or “seem” used to indicate a state of being – an adjective will follow the linking verb to describe the noun. For example, in the sentence “The food smells delicious,” the verb “smells” connects the noun “food” to its description, “delicious.”
How Adverbs Work
The main role of an adverb is to modify a verb, an adjective or another adverb by answering the question “how?” In the sentence, “The cat jumped quickly from the porch,” the adverb “quickly” describes the verb “jumped” by telling how it happened. An adjective is modified in the sentence, “The house is incredibly large.” The house is described by the adjective “large,” while the adverb “incredibly” tells us how large. In the example of “The spy whispered quite softly,” the adverb “softly” explains how the spy whispered, while the adverb “quite” tells how softly the whisper was executed, showing how an adverb may modify another adverb.
How to Locate Adverbs
Adverbs generally end in “-ly,” as in “quickly,” making them easy to spot. However, not every adverb follows this pattern. To identify adverbs in a sentence, first locate the verbs, or words that indicate an action or state of being, such as “run,” “sleep,” or “is.” After marking these words, search for words that tell how an action was done. Also, look for adjectives and mark any words that express the extent of the description, such as "very" or "barely." An adverb may come before the word it modifies, as in “The car quickly sped away,” or after the word it modifies, as in “The car sped quickly away.” In both examples, “quickly” tells how the car sped away. If an adverb begins a sentence or clause, it may be separated from the verb it modifies by the sentence’s subject, as in “Normally we eat at noon,” where “normally” modifies the verb “eat.”
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