How to Format Endnotes Properly

by Aksana Nikolai, Demand Media

A writer knows that ideas that are not his own must be attributed to the original author. Failure to do so, or plagiarism, has serious consequences, which include the loss of a writer's credibility and punishment by law. Fortunately, the development of the footnote and endnote systems has facilitated the process of citing material within a text. Writers who prefer to group all the sources they reference in one place often choose to use endnotes, as opposed to footnotes, which are scattered through the pages of the text.

Step 1

Place a superscript Arabic number after the last word of each citation. The references should be numbered consecutively throughout the text.

Step 2

Create a new page titled "Endnotes" or "Notes." Format the page by indenting the first line; the indentation should be five spaces. The second and any following lines of the entry should begin on the left margin. Begin any new entries with a five-space indentation.

Step 3

List the sources after the corresponding number that is superscripted within the body, followed by a period.

Step 4

Include in each entry the name(s) of the author(s), the title of the work, the publishing date and city, publisher name and page numbers indicating where the reader can find the information in the cited work. For example, an entry for Francis Roe's book "Berlin Rules" would appear as: Francis Roe, "Berlin Rules" (Albuquerque: Digital 1 Presentations, 2006), 217-18.

Step 5

Include the website URL and date on which you accessed the site, if citing information found online. For example: Margarette Burnette, "5 Innocent Ways to Drive Up Car Insurance," [], July 2010.

Step 6

Use an abbreviated format to attribute ideas to previously cited sources. If using a source cited in the preceding endnote, use "Ibid." followed by a comma, the page number and a period. If using a source that was previously cited but not in the preceding endnote, use the author's last name followed by the page number and a period. Insert the work title before the page number and separate the two with a comma when using several sources by the same author or referencing periodical sources such as magazines and newspapers.

Step 7

Place the endnotes page at the end of your document, before the "Bibliography" or "Works Cited" page.


About the Author

Aksana Nikolai is a graduate of the New York Institute of Technology with a bachelor's degree in language studies and international affairs. Nikolai is currently working in online marketing and communications. She has been writing since 2008, specializing in made-for-Web content and maintaining her fashion and beauty blog.