A topic sentence states the paragraph's main idea or focus. In multiparagraph essays, the topic sentence signals the beginning of a new idea that differs from the previous paragraph's main idea. Most topic sentences start a paragraph, followed by supporting sentences, but occasionally they appear at the middle or end of the paragraph, to build climax or summarize key points.
Make It Clear
A strong topic sentence includes clear, specific language and avoids the use of vague, empty words. For example, "Blueberries are good for you" is a weak topic sentence that says very little, while "Blueberries provide essential nutrients" clarifies what makes blueberries good for you.
Keep It Concise
Readers often find wordy topic sentences confusing and difficult to read, but a tightly written topic sentence succinctly conveys its message. For example, writing that "Boston is a cosmopolitan city" maintains reader attention more easily than "Boston is a city with people from many parts of the world," because it uses fewer words to express the same meaning.
Don't Be Boring
A compelling topic sentence captures the reader's attention and encourages him to read further. Including interesting or surprising facts within the topic sentence can spark readers' interest, as can unusual grammatical structure, such as framing the topic sentence into a rhetorical question.
Within persuasive paragraphs, effective topic sentences strongly indicate the writer's position. For example, the delivery of "Individuals should consider decreasing their sugar consumption since it could lead to health problems" proves weak and sterile. Conversely, "Individuals should limit their sugar consumption to avoid health complications" comes across as more authoritative and confident in expressing the health risks associated with sugar consumption.
Use Active Voice
William Strunk Jr. and E.B. White explain in "The Elements of Style" that active voice, as opposed to passive voice, is more direct and forceful. For example, "Discount travel search engines are used by travelers as an efficient way to plan vacations" -- a topic sentence in passive voice -- has less impact than "Travelers use discount travel search engines to efficiently plan vacations," which is written in active voice.
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- Essentials of English; Vincent F. Hopper et al.; 2010
- The Oxford Essential Guide to Writing; Thomas S. Kane; 2000
- The Elements of Style; William Strunk Jr. and E.B. White; 2000
- University College Writing Center: Using Topic Sentences
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