Writers and researchers in the behavioral and social sciences use a great deal of original source material in their work. Sometimes the material is paraphrased and incorporated into the text. However, in some cases the writer chooses to use the exact wording from the source. The sixth edition of the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association" offers guidelines for including direct quotations in text.
If the paragraph has fewer than 40 words, put it within quotation marks. Before the final punctuation but after the closing quotation mark, include the author's last name, a comma, the publication date, a comma and the page number within parentheses. Use "p." to abbreviate page; for example: (Doe, 2007, p. 67). If the author is mentioned in text, put the date in parentheses after his or her name; for example: Doe (2007) states that.... After the quote but before the final punctuation, put the page number in parentheses.
If the paragraph is 40 words or longer, create a block quote. Begin on a new line and indent 1/2 inch from the left margin. Use this margin for the entire paragraph. Double-space the quote. After the final punctuation mark, insert the author, date and page number within parentheses. Use the same citation format as for a short paragraph, such as (Doe, 2007, p. 67).
Include any in-text quotations on the References page. Because a quote can be taken from a variety of sources, follow the format for the specific source of the quote, such as a book, journal or website.
- Brand X Pictures/Brand X Pictures/Getty Images