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APA Format for Graphic Novels

by Marcie Thomas, Demand Media

    The graphic novel is a unique medium that integrates text and graphical representations into a set of panels that collectively convey a story. While the graphic novel is significantly different from the standard text-based novel in terms of content, for purposes of citation the graphic novel's APA reference should follow the standard book citation format.

    In-Text Citations

    The in-text citation for a graphic novel should follow the same rules as for a standard book. For a parenthetical citation, use the (Author, Year) format. For example: The graphic novel Maus (in italics) (Spiegelman, 1986) is a depiction of the Holocaust using cats as Germans and mice as Jews. A signal phrase should be formatted similarly. For example: In Spiegelman's Maus (in italics) (1986), the story of the Holocaust is depicted using cats as Germans and mice as Jews.

    Reference List

    A graphic novel reference listing should follow the same conventions as for a text-based novel: Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work (in italics). Location: Publisher. For example: Spiegelman, A. (1986). Maus (in italics). New York: Pantheon Books.

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    References

    About the Author

    Marcie Thomas has a Master of Education in instructional technology. She specializes in the use of technology in higher education, including online learning. Thomas has experience with instructional design, Web development, network administration, PC support and technical writing.

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