The graphic novel is a unique medium that integrates text and graphical representations into a set of panels that collectively convey a story. While the graphic novel is significantly different from the standard text-based novel in terms of content, for purposes of citation the graphic novel's APA reference should follow the standard book citation format.
The in-text citation for a graphic novel should follow the same rules as for a standard book. For a parenthetical citation, use the (Author, Year) format. For example:
The graphic novel Maus (in italics) (Spiegelman, 1986) is a depiction of the Holocaust using cats as Germans and mice as Jews.
A signal phrase should be formatted similarly. For example:
In Spiegelman's Maus (in italics) (1986), the story of the Holocaust is depicted using cats as Germans and mice as Jews.
A graphic novel reference listing should follow the same conventions as for a text-based novel:
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work (in italics). Location: Publisher.
Spiegelman, A. (1986). Maus (in italics). New York: Pantheon Books.
- Purdue Owl: Reference List: Books
- Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition; American Psychological Association
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