The graphic novel is a unique medium that integrates text and graphical representations into a set of panels that collectively convey a story. While the graphic novel is significantly different from the standard text-based novel in terms of content, for purposes of citation the graphic novel's APA reference should follow the standard book citation format.

In-Text Citations

The in-text citation for a graphic novel should follow the same rules as for a standard book. For a parenthetical citation, use the (Author, Year) format. For example:

The graphic novel Maus (in italics) (Spiegelman, 1986) is a depiction of the Holocaust using cats as Germans and mice as Jews.

A signal phrase should be formatted similarly. For example:

In Spiegelman's Maus (in italics) (1986), the story of the Holocaust is depicted using cats as Germans and mice as Jews.

Reference List

A graphic novel reference listing should follow the same conventions as for a text-based novel:

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work (in italics). Location: Publisher.

For example:

Spiegelman, A. (1986). Maus (in italics). New York: Pantheon Books.